The psychological differences between women and men
A question about the reason for the divergent behaviors of women and men is still important. "Brain se*", "Men are from Mars, and women from Venus" are books that consider the differences between men and women. No wonder the books mentioned above fast became world bestsellers. This topic still brings many controversies and various opinions. Women want to be more and more masculine, men escape from the roles that nature imposed on them. At all costs, we want to have control over what we do not understand, and let go of control where we have much to say.
One century ago, the natural and obvious views were that men and women are very different. Men were thought to be more intelligent, have different abilities. Even earlier, this view was so advanced that they were thought to be two separate species. The development of science, the cultural revolution caused that these claims were taken into consideration more carefully. There was a group of people who recognized that such a division was created by men in the world they dominated.
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Biological differences between the genders rely mainly on a different hormonal economy, a slightly different anatomy, small differences in the structure of the brain. In the brain of women, there are more connections between the two hemispheres. The left hemisphere is primarily responsible for verbal and detailed abilities, orderly information processing (speaking, reading, writing). Damage to the left hemisphere causes all kinds of language problems.
It also controls logical, ordered thought processes. However, the right hemisphere is responsible for spatial imagination. Controls abstract thought processes. A person with a damaged right hemisphere loses orientation, the sense of direction. The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and the right hemisphere controls the left side. And so what we see with the left eye is processed in the right hemisphere.
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Research has shown that the division of functions between women's hemispheres is less pronounced than in men. Both the left and right hemispheres participate in verbal and visual activities. On the other hand, the men's brain is more specialized (the left hemisphere is almost exclusively responsible for linguistic functions, and the laws are spatial). This is probably due to the different structure of the corpus callosum, in women, there are more fibers connecting the right and left hemispheres. Therefore, a greater exchange of information takes place between the two hemispheres.
A lot of research has been carried out to detect differences in brain function in people of different gender. A few of these different abilities were captured. Of course, there are exceptions to this rule. It must be remembered that the differences described below concern the comparison of the average man and the average woman and are based on statistical calculations. The individual factor, that is the abilities of individuals, is completely omitted.
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Culture and education
Not only biology determines the differences between the genders. The role of the environment and education is increasingly emphasized. We learn our own gender since we are a small child. Some toys are bought for boys, and other for girls. The style of raising children is also different. The girls are praised and rewarded for altruistic behavior (when they help someone), they show understanding and care for their sensitivity. On the other hand, boys have more freedom, their independence is valued. In this way differences between women and men are formed.
Studies have shown that all people have clear gender stereotypes. When you ask them what features are definitely masculine and which are feminine, they have no problems to replace them. Traits attributed to men are agility, aggression, arrogance, ruthlessness, rationalism. However, women are defined as sensitive, caring, attentive, submissive and emotional. The degree to which a person manifests stereotypes of one's se* significantly influences how he is perceived in the environment. For example, when a man is delicate and sensitive, we say he has a feminine way of behaving. We say that he is like a man when he is composed, competitive, dominant.
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In this way, the concept of psychological gender arose. This is the degree of intensity of the stereotypical features of femininity or masculinity. There are four types: masculine - the high intensity of stereotypically male features, feminine - the high intensity of stereotypically feminine features, androgenic - the high intensity of stereotypically masculine and feminine features, unspecified - low intensity of stereotypically male and female features. In addition, there are people who are cross-defined se*ually, i.e. showing the characteristics of the opposite se*, that is, female men and male women. An androgenic type is becoming more and more desirable, characterized by having (in high intensity) both male and female characteristics. Ideally, when these features are revealed in specific situations, e.g. an androgenic woman at work is objective, rational, assertive; and in a nursing home, empathic and sensitive.
It's impossible to hide that men and women are different from each other. This was largely due to evolution, which specialized men with traits necessary to fight (defense of the family, hunting), while women to care for relationships with people, family warmth. For many years, these traits are genetically inherited despite the fact that they are no longer essential for survival. Our tradition and culture still maintain such patterns and values, and in this way, children are brought up to fulfill their roles well. Recently, less emphasis is put on the proper upbringing of children (girls can walk on trees, play with cars, and boys dolls). The traits are considered to be masculine as well as feminine, but according to the situation (it's good to behave differently at home and at work differently).